Composite Concave Cupolae as Geometric and Architectural Forms
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In this paper, the geometry of concave cupolae has been the starting point for the generation of composite polyhedral structures, usable as formative patterns for architectural purposes. Obtained by linking paper folding geometry with the geometry of polyhedra, concave cupolae are polyhedra that follow the method of generating cupolae (Johnson’s solids: J3, J4 and J5); but we removed the convexity criterion and omitted squares in the lateral surface. Instead of alter- nating triangles and squares there are now two or more paired series of equilateral triangles. The criterion of face regularity is respected, as well as the criterion of multiple axial symmetry. The distribution of the triangles is based on strictly determined and mathematically defined parameters, which allows the creation of such structures in a way that qualifies them as an autonomous group of polyhedra — concave cupolae of sorts II, IV, VI (2N). If we want to see these structures as polyhedral surfaces (no...t as solids) connecting the concept of the cupola (dome) in the architectural sense with the geometrical meaning of (concave) cupola, we re- move the faces of the base polygons. Thus we get a deltahedral structure — a shell made entirely from equilateral triangles, which is advantageous for the purpose of prefabrication. Due to the congruence of the major 2n-sided bases of concave cupolae of sort II with the minor bases of the corresponding concave cupolae of sort IV, it is possible to combine these polyhedra in composite polyhedra. But also their elongation with concave antiprisms of sort II or the augmentation with concave pyramids of sort II could be performed. Based on the foregoing, we exam- ine the possibilities of combining the considered polyhedra into unified composite structures.