Corroded scale analysis from water distribution pipes
Analiza korozionih ljuski u vodovodskim cevima
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The subject of this study were the steel pipes that are part of Belgrade's drinking water supply network. In order to investigate the mutual effects of corrosion and water quality, the corrosion scales on the pipes were analyzed. The idea was to improve control of corrosion processes and prevent impact of corrosion on water quality degradation. The instrumental methods for corrosion scales characterization used were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), for the investigation of corrosion scales of the analyzed samples surfaces, X-ray diffraction (XRD), for the analysis of the presence of solid forms inside scales, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), for the microstructural analysis of the corroded scales, and BET adsorption isotherm for the surface area determination. Depending on the composition of water next to the pipe surface, corrosion of iron results in the formation of different compounds and solid phases. The composition and structure of the iron scales in the drinking water dis...tribution pipes depends on the type of the metal and the composition of the aqueous phase. Their formation is probably governed by several factors that include water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, buffer intensity, natural organic matter (NOM) concentration, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Factors such as water flow patterns, seasonal fluctuations in temperature, and microbiological activity as well as water treatment practices such as application of corrosion inhibitors can also influence corrosion scale formation and growth. Therefore, the corrosion scales found in iron and steel pipes are expected to have unique features for each site. Compounds that are found in iron corrosion scales often include goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, hematite, ferrous oxide, siderite, ferrous hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, ferrihydrite, calcium carbonate and green rusts. Iron scales have characteristic features that include: corroded floor, porous core that contains both fluid and solid, relatively dense shell-like layer that covers the porous core and provides structural integrity to the scale, and surface layer that is present on top of the shell-like layer at scale-water interface and loosely attached to the shell-like layer. Iron(II) deposits are formed under reducing conditions. The presence of relatively soluble Fe(II) deposits such as siderite and ferrous hydroxide was confirmed by XRD and SEM analysis. In the presence of carbonic species, siderite (FeCO3) is prevailing ferrous deposit. Further studies are needed for obtaining greater knowledge on the mechanism of iron release from corroded pipes and the influence of water quality to iron corrosion.
Tema ovog istraživanja bile su čelične cevi koje su deo beogradske vodovodske mreže. Da bi se ispitalo međusobno dejstvo korozije i kvaliteta vode analizirane su korozione ljuske na cevima. Cilj istraživanja bio je poboljšanje kontrole procesa korozije da bi se smanjio uticaj korozije na degradaciju kvaliteta vode. Utvrđeno je da u zavisnosti od sastava vode, korozione ljuske predstavljaju različita jedinjenja gvožđa. Prisustvo teško rastvornih jedinjenja gvožđa(II) i gvožđa(III) utvrđeno je savremenim instrumentalnim metodama i tehnikama.
Keywords:corrosion / corrosion scales / iron / water / water supply pipes / korozija / korozione ljuske / gvožđe / voda / vodovodske cevi
Source:Hemijska industrija, 2011, 65, 5, 507-515
- Savez hemijskih inženjera, Beograd