Supercritical flow in circular conduit bends
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A complex flow pattern occurring in a circular conduit bend with supercritical flow has been studied. The main objective was to obtain reliable criteria for prediction of the onset of helical and choking flow, in order to facilitate the design of bottom outlets, tunnel spillways and drainage collectors with bends. A series of scale model experiments provided data for developing empirical relationships describing the effects of the bend curvature, bend deflection angle and approach flow conditions (relative flow depth and Froude number) on the inception of helical and choking flow. Expressions for the energy bend loss coefficient were also proposed. The bend curvature and approach flow conditions proved to have a major influence on the onset of helical flow, while the deflection angle becomes an important parameter for angles less than 45 degrees. Bend curvature and deflection angle have commensurable influence on the onset of choking flow.
Keywords:Choking flow / closed conduit / energy bend loss / helical flow / horizontal bend / hydraulic model / supercritical flow
Source:Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2015, 53, 1, 93-100
- Taylor and Francis Ltd.